What Is Hyperstension And Its Causes

What is high blood pressure?
Hypertension is a common condition that affects the arteries of the body. Also called high blood pressure. With high blood pressure, the force of the blood pushing against the walls of the arteries is always too strong. The heart has to work harder to pump blood.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Hypertension is generally defined as blood pressure above 130/80mmHg.

The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association divide blood pressure into four general categories. Ideal blood pressure is classified as normal. )

Normal blood pressure: Blood pressure below 120/80mmHg.

Increased blood pressure: Upper number ranges from 120 to 129 mm Hg and lower number is less than or equal to 80 mm Hg.

Hypertension Stage 1: Upper number ranges from 130 to 139 mm Hg or lower number 80-89 mm Hg.

Hypertension Stage 2: The upper value is 140mmHg or more, or the lower value is 90mmHg or more.
Blood pressure above 180/120 mmHg is considered a hypertensive emergency or crisis. Anyone with these blood pressure readings should seek emergency medical help.

Untreated high blood pressure increases your risk of heart attack, stroke, and other serious health problems. It is important to have your blood pressure measured at least every 2 years from the age of 18. Some people need more frequent tests.

Healthy lifestyle habits such as quitting smoking, exercising, and eating a healthy diet can help prevent and treat high blood pressure. Some people need drugs to treat high blood pressure.


Most people with hypertension have no symptoms, even when blood pressure levels reach dangerously high levels. For years, people can suffer from high blood pressure without symptoms.

People with high blood pressure may have the following symptoms:

  • Headache
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nosebleed

However, these symptoms are not specific. It usually does not appear until high blood pressure reaches a serious or life-threatening stage.

When to See a Doctor

Blood pressure screening is an important part of general health care. How often you need to check your blood pressure depends on your age and general health.

After age 18, have your blood pressure checked by your doctor at least every two years. If you're over 40 or 18-39 and at high risk for high blood pressure, ask to have your blood pressure checked annually.

If you have high blood pressure or other heart disease risk factors, your healthcare provider may recommend more frequent testing.

Children over the age of 3 can have their blood pressure measured at an annual physical examination.

If you don't see your healthcare provider regularly, you may be able to get a free blood pressure test at a health fair or elsewhere in your community. Free blood pressure monitors are also available at some stores and pharmacies. The accuracy of these machines depends on several factors such as: B. Proper cuff size and proper use of machines. Talk to your doctor about using a public blood pressure monitor.

Cause of blood pressure

Blood pressure is determined by two factors: the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the difficulty of moving blood through the arteries. The more blood the heart pumps and the narrower the arteries, the higher the blood pressure.

There are two main types of hypertension.

1. Primary Hypertension, also known as Essential Hypertension
For most adults, high blood pressure has no identifiable cause. This type of hypertension is called primary or essential hypertension. It tends to develop gradually over years. Deposits in arteries called atherosclerosis increase the risk of high blood pressure.

2. Secondary Hypertension
This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition. It usually begins suddenly and causes higher blood pressure than primary hypertension.

A physical examination alone can raise blood pressure. This is called white coat hypertension.

The risk of high blood pressure increases with age. By the age of 64, men are more likely to have high blood pressure. A woman is more likely to have high blood pressure when she is over 65.
Hypertension is particularly common among blacks. It occurs at an earlier age in blacks than in whites.


Family history. If you have a parent or sibling with high blood pressure, you are more likely to have high blood pressure.

Obesity or overweight. Being overweight causes changes in your blood vessels, kidneys, and other parts of your body. These changes often raise blood pressure. Being overweight or obese also increases the risk of heart disease and its risk factors, such as: B. High cholesterol.

Lack of exercise. Not exercising can lead to weight gain. Being overweight increases your risk of high blood pressure. Inactive people also tend to have higher heart rates

Tobacco use or vaping. Smoking, chewing tobacco, and e-cigarettes can cause blood pressure to rise sharply in a short period of time. Smoking cigarettes damages the walls  of blood vessels and accelerates the hardening process of the arteries.If you smoke, ask your caregiver about ways to help you quit.

Too much salt. When you have a lot of salt (also called sodium) in your body, your body retains water. This raises blood pressure.

Low potassium level. Potassium helps balance the amount of salt in the body's cells. A balanced potassium ratio is important for heart health. Low potassium levels can be caused by a lack of potassium in your diet or by certain health conditions such as dehydration.

Excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption is associated with increased blood pressure, especially in men.

Stress. Extreme stress can cause temporary increases in blood pressure
Stress-related habits such as heavy eating, smoking and drinking alcohol can further increase blood pressure.

Certain chronic diseases. Kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea are some of the conditions that can lead to high blood pressure.

Pregnancy. Pregnancy can also cause high blood pressure.

Hypertension is most common in adults. However, children can also have high blood pressure. High blood pressure in children can be caused by kidney or heart problems. However, the number of children with high blood pressure is increasing due to lifestyle habits such as unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise.


Excessive pressure on artery walls caused by high blood pressure can damage blood vessels and body organs. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the greater the damage.

Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to complications such as:

Heart attack or stroke.

Hardening and thickening of arteries due to high blood pressure or other factors can lead to heart attack, stroke, or other complications.


When blood pressure rises, the blood vessels weaken and swell, forming an aneurysm. Rupture of an aneurysm can be life-threatening.

Heart failure.

High blood pressure forces the heart to work harder to pump blood. Stress thickens the walls of the heart's pumping chambers. This condition is called left ventricular hypertrophy. Eventually, the heart can no longer pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to heart failure.

Kidney problem.

 High blood pressure can narrow or weaken the blood vessels in the kidneys. This can lead to kidney damage eye problems. Increased blood pressure can cause blood vessels in the eye to thicken, narrow, or burst. This can lead to vision loss.

Metabolic Syndrome

. This syndrome is a group of metabolic disorders of the body. It is about the irregular breakdown of sugar, also called glucose. This syndrome includes increased waist size, high triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar. These conditions increase your chances of developing diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, changes with memory and understanding. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can impair your ability to think, remember, and learn.


Narrowed or blocked arteries can restrict blood flow to the brain. This can lead to a specific type of dementia called vascular dementia. A stroke that blocks blood flow to the brain can also cause vascular dementia.


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