1 in 3 people in the United States have cancer. You or someone you know may have cancer. Here is some information to help you better understand what cancer is.
You are made up of trillions of cells that normally grow and divide as needed throughout your life. When cells become abnormal or age, they usually die. Cancer starts when something goes wrong in this process, cells keep making new cells, and old or abnormal cells don't die when they should. You may be locked out. This makes it difficult for the body to do its job.
Cancer is successfully treated in many people. In fact, more people than ever before are living full lives after cancer treatment.
Cancer is not just a disease
There are many different types of cancer. Cancer can occur anywhere in the body and is named after the part of the body where it occurs. For example, breast cancer that starts in the breast is called breast cancer even if it has spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body.
Mainly he has two categories of cancer.
Blood cancers are cancers of blood cells such as leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma.
The most common solid tumors are breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer.
Although these cancers are similar in some ways, they may differ in how they grow, metastasize, and respond to treatment. Some cancers grow and spread rapidly. Others grow more slowly. Some are more likely to spread to other parts of the body. Others tend to stay in the first place.
Some cancers are best treated with surgery. Others respond well to drugs such as chemotherapy. Often he will have two or more treatments for best results.
What is a tumor?
A tumor is a lump or growth. Some lumps are cancerous, but many are not.
Lumps that are not cancer are called benign. Of the nodules, those that are cancerous are called malignant. Cancer cells may slough off where the cancer started. These cells can travel to other parts of the body and eventually end up in lymph nodes and other body organs, causing problems with normal function.
What causes cancer?
Cancer cells arise from multiple changes in genes. These changes can have many causes
Lifestyle habits, genes inherited from parents, and exposure to environmental carcinogens can all play a role. Often there is no clear cause.
What stage is the cancer?
Once cancer is found, tests will be done to find out how big it is and whether it has spread from where it started. This is called the cancer stage.
A stage lower than
(such as stage 1 or 2) means the cancer has not spread much. A higher number (such as level 3 or 4) means more spread. Level 4 is the highest level.
The stage of cancer is very important in choosing the best treatment for the person. Ask your doctor about your cancer stage and what it means for you.
How does cancer spread?
Cancer can spread from where it started (the primary site) to other parts of the body.
Once cancer cells separate from a tumor, they can travel to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Cancer cells that travel through the bloodstream can reach distant organs. Cancer cells can travel through the lymph system and eventually reach the lymph nodes. In either case, most escaped cancer cells die or are killed before they can grow elsewhere. But one or two can colonize new areas, start growing, and form new tumors.
This spread of cancer to new parts of the body is called metastasis.
The cells that form metastases are the same types of cells as the primary cancer. They are not new types of cancer. For example, breast cancer cells that have spread to the lung are still breast cancer, not lung cancer. And colon cancer cells that have metastasized to the liver are still colon cancer.
In order for cancer cells to spread to new parts of the body, they must undergo several changes. They must first be able to separate from the original tumor and then adhere to the outer walls of lymphatic or blood vessels. It then has to pass through the walls of blood vessels and travel with blood and lymph to new organs and diseases.
Symptoms such as fever and bleeding can be seen and measured by others.
Symptoms such as pain and fatigue are felt or noticed by the affected person.
The signs and symptoms of cancer depend on where the cancer is, how big it is, and how much it affects nearby organs and tissues. If the cancer has spread (metastasized), it may cause signs and symptoms in different parts of the body.
How does cancer cause signs and symptoms?
Cancer may begin to grow or invade nearby organs, blood vessels, or nerves. This pressure causes some of the signs and symptoms of cancer.
Cancer can also cause symptoms such as fever, extreme fatigue and weight loss
This is likely because cancer cells have used up much of the body's energy supply. Alternatively, cancers can release substances that change the way the body makes energy.Cancers can also trigger reactions in the immune system in ways that produce these signs and symptoms.
What are the common signs and symptoms of cancer?
Most signs and symptoms are not caused by cancer, but may be caused by other causes. If your signs and symptoms persist or get worse, see your doctor to determine the cause. If cancer is not the cause, doctors can identify the cause and treat it if necessary.
For example, lymph nodes are part of the body's immune system and help trap harmful substances in the body. Normal lymph nodes are small and can be difficult to find. However, if there is infection, inflammation, or cancer, the lump can grow. Those near the surface of the body can be so large that they can be felt with a finger, and some can be seen as swellings or lumps under the skin.One reason lymph nodes can swell is when cancer is trapped in them. is. So if you have an unusual swelling or lump, you should see your doctor to find out what's going on. The parts are shown below. However, each of these issues can also be caused by other issues.
Fatigue or extreme fatigue that does not improve with rest
Unexplained weight loss or gain of 10 pounds or more
Eating disorders such as hunger, difficulty swallowing, stomach pain, or feeling sick
Swelling or lumps anywhere in the body
Lumps or lumps in the chest or other parts of the body
Pain incurable or yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice), especially new or unexplained, that does not go away or gets worse.
Persistent cough or hoarseness
Unexplained unusual bleeding or bruising
Persistent changes in bowel habits, such as constipation or diarrhea, or changes in the appearance of stool Pain during urination
Fever or night sweats
Visual or hearing problems
Mouth changes such as sores, bleeding, pain or numbness There are many other things not listed here. If you notice significant changes in how you are functioning or feeling, especially if they persist for a long time or get worse, consult your doctor. If it is not cancer related, your doctor can learn more about it and treat it if necessary.
In some cases, cancer can be detected before symptoms appear. The American Cancer Society and other health organizations recommend getting cancer-related screenings and certain tests, even if you don't have symptoms. This helps detect certain types of cancer early. For more information on early detection, see the American Cancer Society's Guidelines for Early Detection of Cancer.
Also, remember that it is important to see your doctor if you have new or worsening signs or symptoms, even if you have had cancer-related screening. Signs and symptoms may indicate cancer or another disease that needs treatment. Imaging tests can be used in many ways, such as looking for cancer, to see how far it has spread, and to determine if cancer treatment is working.
Endoscopy is a medical procedure in which a doctor inserts a tubular instrument into the body to look inside.
Can cancer be cured?
Cure for cancer depends on the type and stage of cancer, the type of treatment received, and other factors. Some cancers are easier to cure than others
But every cancer needs to be treated differently. There is no cure for cancer.
Cure and Remission
Cure means that the cancer has gone away with treatment, no further treatment is needed, and the cancer is unlikely to come back. Doctors are rarely confident that the cancer will not come back again. In most cases, it takes time to find out if the cancer is likely to come back. However, the longer the cancer-free period, the more likely the cancer will not come back. When treatment appears to be working, doctors tend to say that the cancer is in remission rather than cured.
Remission is the period during which the cancer is responding to treatment or is under control. Some people think that remission means that the cancer is cured, but that may not be the case.
In complete remission, all signs and symptoms of cancer disappear and no cancer cells are detected by any test.
In a partial response, the cancer shrinks but does not disappear completely.
Remission may last from weeks to years. Depending on the type of cancer, treatment may or may not continue during remission. A complete remission can last for years, and over time the cancer can be considered cured. I have
What do survival statistics mean?
When told they have cancer, many people ask their doctors about their chances of survival. There are many factors in the answer, but there are statistics that help. A statistic is a number that describes what happens to a large group of people with the same diagnosis. Statistics can't be applied to any particular person, but they can give you an idea of what to expect.
The statistics used for cancer are:
Survival: Percentage of people alive at a specified time after diagnosis.
Overall survival: The proportion of people with a given type and stage of cancer who do not die from any cause during the period after diagnosis.
Cancer (or disease) specific survival rate: Percentage of people with a particular type and stage of cancer who did not die of the cancer within a specified time period after diagnosis.
5-year relative survival: Percentage of people alive 5 years after diagnosis. It does not include those who died from other diseases.
Viability can represent any time period. However, researchers usually look at relative 5-year survival rates.
What does it mean to be a cancer survivor?
There are multiple definitions of cancer survivor. Some people use the term to refer to someone who has been diagnosed with cancer. This is what the American Cancer Society means when they talk about surviving or living as a cancer survivor. increase
Others call a person a survivor only if they live several years after being diagnosed with cancer. However, keep in mind that some people take longer to complete treatment and not everyone completes it. Some people live with cancer as a chronic disease for years.
Other affected people, such as family members and friends, may also be considered cancer survivors.
Being a cancer survivor means different things to different people. Some patients are cancer-free after treatment, but may experience late and long-term side effects from treatment.Others may be cancer-free after treatment, but their cancer will return. In addition, some people need continued cancer treatment to keep the cancer under control. But anyone diagnosed with cancer needs care that focuses on their individual needs.
Not everyone likes to be called a cancer survivor. Everyone has the right to define their cancer experience. Anyone who calls themselves a cancer survivor should be considered one.
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